Improved Hector at Proof of Concept 2.0

What smart device would be most useful for you? What do you expect from an application that tracks your electricity consumption? How would you improve Energysquare, the wireless phone charger? What if the customer became a co-creator? This is the goal of EDF Pulse & You, a digital laboratory of crowd-sourced innovation. Since April 2016, start-ups and companies have been using it to present their projects in fields like energy, well-being and housing to the public. The goal of the platform’s new 2.0 version of the proof of concept (POC), comments and discussion forums is to give users the ability to contribute their two cents. Here, innovations are tested before being improved and refined thanks to feedback from future users. “We hope that people will tell us how EDF can respond to their expectations in everyday life” “We hope that people will tell us how EDF can respond to their expectations in everyday life”, said Gaël Le Boulch, the person in charge of open innovation at the marketing department for EDF residential customers. The comments and ideas submitted by users will help improve products, develop technologies, and even create services that the designers may not have thought of”. Home Tests These guidelines have worked perfectly for Hector, a pocket-sized weather station and the latest invention to be critiqued by the website community. In response to concerns about its supposed Achilles’ heel--namely, the fragility of a prototype small enough to hold in the palm of your hand--experts have reinforced Hector, giving it a pre-installed battery, a cube form that cannot be disassembled, and a revamped suction pad. These changes greatly increase its sturdiness. Another change anticipated after comments made by the testers is that users will be able to consult the information collected (temperature and humidity of their home) from a distance on a smartphone or tablet. Other improvements were Another change anticipated after comments made by the testers is that users will be able to consult the information collected (temperature and humidity of their home) from a distance on a smartphone or tablet. Other improvements were suggested, including adding LEDs to make it easier to see the readings. Even the marketing department has taken user feedback into account: the logo has been well thought-out, the packaging was reviewed and redesigned, and the website highlights the many uses for the product. The testers have clearly left nothing to chance! And the experiment isn’t over. Some of them have been selected to test Hector at home until 15 October. This is an additional step in the co-construction processand more information is available at the EDF Pulse & You website. To go further Discover EDF Pulse & You, a co-innovation platformEnergysquare or how to recharge wirelessly

[EN] Planète Progrès : un projecteur intelligent, une hydrolienne et un skateboard électrique

[EN] Ce nouvel épisode de Planète progrès vous emmène à la découverte de différents objets intelligents qui pourraient bien séduire la maisonnée. C’est le cas d’Egger, un projecteur connecté qui enchantera les enfants. Les adolescents, quant à eux, adopteront peut-être très vite Eon, un système permettant de rendre n’importe quel skateboard électrique. Pour les femmes qui souhaitent devenir maman, le bracelet Ava sera leur meilleur allié. Grâce à lui, elles peuvent en effet connaître en temps réel leur date d’ovulation. Quant au rafraîchisseur d’air écologique Geizeer, chacun pourra en profiter durant les chaudes journées d’été. Sans oublier la production de l'énergie de demain avec le parc éolien de de Paimpol-Bréhat et une manière intelligente de contrôler sa consommation d'électricité.Les sujets Planète Progrès Eon, un dispositif pour rendre vos skateboards électriques Egger, un projecteur connecté pour les enfants L’hydrolienne du parc éolien de Paimpol-Bréhat Geizeer, un rafraichisseur d’air écologique Ava, le bracelet connecté pour connaitre ses périodes de fertilitéE.quilibre, une solution intelligente pour contrôler sa consommation d’électricité

Planet Progress: a smart projector, a marine turbine and an electric skateboard

This new episode of Planet Progress will take you on the discovery of various smart objects that could seduce the whole household. This is true of Egger, a connected projector that will enchant your children. Teenagers on the other hand will quickly become enthralled by Eon, a system that can make any skateboard electric. As for women hoping to become mothers, the Ava bracelet will be their new best friend. This device offers them real-time detection of their ovulation period. And Geizeer, the eco-friendly air cooler, will be a comfort to everyone on hot summer days. Last but not least is tomorrow's energy generator: the Paimpol-Bréhat tidal farm is an intelligent way to control energy consumption. In this episode of Planet Progress Eon, a system to convert any skateboard into a powerful electric machine Egger: Interactive Learning Projector For Kids The marine turbine of the Paimpol-Bréhat tidal farm Geizeer, an eco-friendly air cooler Ava, a connected bracelet to track your fertility periodsE.quilibre, une solution intelligente pour contrôler sa consommation d’électricité

[EN] Et le Li-Fi fut !

[EN] Les habitants de l'éco-quartier Camille Claudel à Palaiseau (Essonne) seront parmi les tous premiers en France à bénéficier d'un réseau Li-Fi chez eux. Cette technologie utilise la lumière pour transporter des informations sans fil, grâce à une géolocalisation extrêmement fine. Déjà à la pointe du développement du Li-Fi sur la voie publique, EDF cherche désormais à installer cette idée à l'intérieur même des foyers. A cette fin, EDF Optimal Solutions a lancé en décembre 2015 un appel à projets avec la plateforme Partager La Ville afin d'imaginer les applications les plus utiles aux habitants et de recruter les start-up les plus ingénieuses en matière de transmission sans fil par la lumière. On en connaît aujourd’hui le lauréat : il s’agit de Home LiFi-Services, qui privilégie l’interconnexion des objets connectés. Il regroupe les sociétés Actiled, Courchevel Telecom, Algonano, Mon Pti voisinage et Bee Lifi. Valentine de Lajarte, directrice et co-fondatrice de Partager La Ville revient sur cette démarche originale. Comment le projet Home Li-Fi est-il né ? Valentine de Lajarte : Nous avons fait le constat que la technologie Li-Fi existait mais sans être véritablement utilisée. Il nous a semblé judicieux de mettre en relation, par le biais de la plateforme Partager La Ville, différents acteurs capables d'imaginer l'avenir de cette innovation de rupture. Et, plus précisément, de définir de nouveaux usages mieux adaptés et utiles aux habitants. Après concertation avec la municipalité de Palaiseau, ScientiPôle Aménagement (1) et EDF Optimal Solution, le choix a été fait de déployer la technologie Li-Fi et de développer des services facilitant le maintien à domicile des personnes dépendantes. Par ailleurs, EDF optimal Solutions a été à l’initiative du déploiement de la technologie Li-Fi en outdoor sur les 75 lampadaires du quartier Camille Claudel dans la Ville de Palaiseau du quartier Camille Claudel. Pourquoi avoir retenu cette thématique ? Les plus de 60 ans représentent déjà près de 23 % de la population française et leur part devrait atteindre 31,5% en 2050. Or les personnes âgées déclarent en majorité vouloir rester chez elles le plus longtemps possible, préférant le maintien à domicile au placement en structure spécialisée au coût élevé. Or, 80% des accidents de la vie courante des plus de 65 ans sont dus à des chutes survenues au domicile. Des services de communication géolocalisées, par exemple des alertes de sécurité, utilisant le Li-Fi prennent alors tout leur sens. Pouvez-vous nous donner un exemple des services qui peuvent être proposés grâce au réseau Li-Fi à l’intérieur des bâtiments ? Une intelligence artificielle va pouvoir détecter des mouvements anormaux dans une habitation, comme un arrêt prolongé dans un couloir qui peut être le signe d'une chute. Mais un tel système ne devient vraiment intéressant que si une alerte est transmise à une plate-forme de téléassistance et si cette alerte est prise en charge, par exemple, par un service de conciergerie. Des consultations médicales à distance peuvent même venir compléter le dispositif. Pour aller plus loin Retrouvez le projet sur le site partagerlaville.com Au cœur du plus grand écoquartier à Palaiseau

And there was Li-Fi!

Residents of the Camille Claudel eco-district in Palaiseau (Essonne) will be some of the very first in France to enjoy Li-Fi network access at home. The technology uses light to carry information wirelessly using extremely precise geolocation. Already a leading player in rolling out Li-Fi in public spaces, EDF is now looking to bring this idea right into people's homes. To achieve this, EDF Optimal Solutions launched a call for projects in December 2015 with the Partager La Ville platform so as to identify the most useful apps for residents and to recruit the most ingenious start-ups working in wireless light-based transmission. And the winner can now be revealed: Home LiFi-Services, which works on interconnection between connected devices. It includes the companies Actiled, Courchevel Telecom, Algonano, Mon P'ti Voisinage and Bee Lifi. We spoke to Valentine de Lajarte, director and co-founder of Partager La Ville, about this original approach. How did the Home Li-Fi project come about? Valentine de Lajarte: We'd noticed that Li-Fi technology existed but wasn't really being used. We thought it made sense to use the Partager La Ville platform to bring together a range of stakeholders who could set out the future of this breakthrough innovation – and, more specifically, who could determine new uses that are better suited to and more useful for residents. After dialogue with the municipality of Palaiseau, ScientiPôle Aménagement (1) and EDF Optimal Solutions, the choice was made to roll out Li-Fi technology and to develop services to help dependent people remain at home. Alongside this, EDF Optimal Solutions was also behind the roll-out of outdoor Li-Fi technology through the 75 street lights in Palaiseau's Camille Claudel neighbourhood. Why did you choose this theme? The over-60s currently account for 23% of the population of France, and this should reach 31.5% by 2050. But the majority of elderly people say they want to stay at home for as long as possible, preferring this option to moving to expensive specialised facilities. However, 80% of day-to-day accidents among the over-65s are caused by falls at home. In this context, geolocated communication services using Li-Fi – for example safety warnings – show their true value. Could you give us an example of services that could be offered thanks to a Li-Fi network within buildings? An artificial intelligence could detect abnormal movements within a home, such as prolonged lack of movement in a corridor, which could indicate a fall. But the benefits of this system only really become clear if a warning is sent to a remote assistance platform and if this warning is looked into, for example, by a concierge service. Remote medical consultations could even be used as an additional system feature. To go further Find out the project on partagerlaville.com website (in French) At the heart of the biggest eco-district in Palaiseau

Top-up charging technology makes electric buses more efficient

The expert : After his thesis on induction melting of metals, Bernard Maestrali joined the EDF research and development centre in the microwaves and high frequencies team. Currently the head of Energy Optimisation & Industrial Procedures Expertise, he leads three teams: one develops industrial heat pumps, another creates tools to optimise the use of energy and materials on industrial sites, and the third works on original ideas to help spread electric mobility solutions, particularly this top-up charging project for buses. . Photo DR. What is top-up charging and what are its advantages compared with current charging techniques? Biberonnage (top-up charging) is a French term referring to how babies are fed many times in a day, but the concept has been known around the world for three to four years now. This can be applied to an electric vehicle with a fixed route whose battery will be partially re-charged at each stop. At EDF, we are considering this solution for buses, but it could also work for shuttles used in airports or large university campuses. The idea is that it is not necessary to charge a battery 100% before the start of a service route. You can, for example, start with a 20% charge, knowing that you will top up on the way. There are several advantages. There are fewer spikes in demand on the power grid since there is no need to recharge entire bus fleets at night. In addition, the batteries do not have to be large enough to last a whole day. They can be smaller, which saves on weight and allows buses to take on more passengers. Also, top-up charging means a very low charge/discharge duration, and there is little variation in the voltage, which preserves the battery's service life. This is also good news in terms of investment since the batteries are less expensive and last longer. Further reading: The fully electric bus that charges itself Top-up charging of electric buses is the subject of several field experiments in France, including one at the Nice airport underway since November 2014. © PVI, Aéroport de Nice Côte d'Azur EDF has chosen to work on contactless inductive charging. Why this technique? We think that induction is the smartest solution and the most flexible (editor's note: see inset). Unlike with other existing charging solutions (pantograph, articulated arm, ground contactor etc.), there is no physical contact. When the bus reaches the charging area its positioning does not have to be so precise. In addition, introducing the mechanism requires less significant roadworks since the slab containing the inductor can be level with the surface or buried just 5 millimetres under the road. How inductive top-up charging works The principle of the inductive charging system which EDF is working on is based on two inductors. One is fitted in the bus and the other is embedded in a large slab made of strong plastic material, which is inserted into the road surface at the level of the bus stop. When the vehicle reaches the zone, the inductors are face-to-face and the charge begins without physical contact, by inductive coupling, with a yield of 90-95%. There is no minimum duration for the battery charge since it is simply a question of increasing the level by a few percentage points. The time that a bus is stationary at a stop is about one to two minutes depending on the number of people, and the system injects on average 100 kW. Photo : EDF Are there already plans to roll this out in France or elsewhere the world? There are experiments exploring various technical solutions, notably in Grenoble, Nice and Geneva, Switzerland. But for the moment, nothing has yet been rolled-out on a large scale. We should keep in mind that the pros and cons of each of these technologies have not yet been completely identified and tested over time. At EDF, we have been working on inductive charging in various forms, and we are in contact with municipal transport systems. No matter what, there will need to be a phase of harmonising all the technology. I think we will have to wait between five and ten years to see top-up charging technology for buses in our cities. Further reading: A garage for electric bicycles In the future, do you think it will be possible to top-up individuals' electric cars? Absolutely. We have already carried out modelling studies on such a concept. In fact, our current work on static charging is in preparation for the advent of dynamic charging systems which could pave the way for electric motorways. This would involve placing inductors on stretches of road at regular intervals, enabling electric vehicles to constantly top-up. This level of autonomy would allow drivers to make long journeys without long stops. As with buses, car batteries would not have to be so large, which would reduce weight and cost, and would offer more design flexibility. But even if the technology exists, ways of thinking will have to evolve if we are to make the switch from thermal engines to electric ones. When it comes to cars, we are a bit set in our ways. So, it's also our job to change minds. On the same topic Battery energy just when you need it The future of electric busesWireless electric buses are setting off in EnglandELLISUP, the fully electric bus that charges itselfSolar Roadway: roads that produce electricity In Partnership with

In future our homes and cars will have the same source of energy

The expert: Roderick Jackson, Graduate from the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), Professor Roderick Jackson has a doctorate in mechanical engineering. After having jointly founded a building company, he joined the Building Envelope Systems Research team of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). He is the one who supervises the AMIE project. © DR What does the AMIE project entail? Our Oak Ridge National Laboratory team has worked with industrial partners to produce a hybrid gas electric vehicle connected to a home with a solar energy supply. Thanks to a wireless transmission technology developed in our laboratory, the electricity can flow in both directions between the car and the home. We have developed an algorithm which provides intelligent control of the energy flow. When necessary, the car battery provides energy to the house and vice versa. If lack of sunshine prevents recharging, the house draws energy from the traditional power grid. For the design, we used 3D printing which helped us meet two objectives: to show that our idea was feasible; and to overcome classic architectural constraints by creating new forms. Further reading: A house built in just 24 hours 3D printing has freed architects from traditional construction rules, allowing them to be more innovative. © Oak Ridge National Laboratory You speak of a "symbiotic relationship" between the car and the home. What do you mean by that? AMIE is designed like a living organism. Your body regulates itself, it knows when it needs to send blood to various parts of the body. AMIE does the same thing, coordinating the flow of energy through a computer and algorithms. With the advent of electric propulsion, the car and the home will share the same energy source. On average, a vehicle is not in use for over 90% of the time. Our idea was to find a way of integrating it into the power grid in order to create a synergy between the two most significant consumers of energy that we use on a daily basis. The I2R fab lab: tools for testing the innovations of tomorrow As professor Roderick Jackson from the Oak Ridge laboratory was explaining, 3D printing has played a crucial part in the success of the AMIE project. "Prototypes which usually take weeks to be adapted and modified are processed in just a few hours thanks to 3D printing", he points out. In France, EDF is one of the players to have banked on this technology in their work on future technological developments. In 2013, the Énerbat (energy in buildings and regions) department of the French group's R&D centre opened its fab lab I2R (fabrication laboratory) which brings together a multidisciplinary team. Industrial designers, research engineers and ergonomics experts are working together closely with easy-to-use tools: 3D printers and scanners, three-axes milling machines and laser cutters. Equipment which enables them to rapidly create prototypes to test ideas and hypotheses. Photo : Studio GGSV, EDF Who is the AMIE aimed at? For example, could the concept be adapted to the city district scale? AMIE is aimed at all those who could benefit from this symbiotic relationship, starting with over two billion people worldwide who do not have reliable access to electricity. For them, this system could create autonomous micro-power grids. We were also targeting construction professionals, showing them the possibilities offered by 3D printing on a large scale, and energy sector professionals, demonstrating an integrated system. It is not a definitive answer, but rather a spark which could lead to one. Further reading: Microgrid aims for energy autonomy of buildings In the USA, AMIE has been presented to the public on several occasions. How have people reacted? How long before such a concept becomes a reality? Overall, we have had very positive feedback. People realise that the concept, and the principles behind it, are emerging as an obvious solution. It is not a question of whether our lifestyle will change, but rather when and how. Take what has happened with telecommunications and the advent of the telephone, from the first fixed lines to current mobile telephony as an example. The same thing will happen with energy. The final solution will not be an AMIE application in the strict sense, but something which will follow on from it, whether in the area of wireless energy transmission between the home and the vehicle, the waste-free construction of buildings with the help of 3D printing or the creation of micro-networks. AMIE is a start, not an end. On the same topic VoSS: storing solar energy is easy! Electric cars now reaching higher speeds3d printer creates living tissuei2R: the Fab Lab driving innovation In partnership with

The Saclay Showroom: lifting the lid on research

"Dare to face the future and innovate in the now" – the new mantra, the first thing people see as they set foot in the new 300 m2 exhibition hall showroom, is a reflection on the research carried out by the Group: bold and diverse. Located  at the heart of the Paris-Saclay EDF LAB, and opened in March 2016, the showroom acts as a "window into all the Group's R&D activities," as François Molho put it. A range of activities that are often unexpected. "Unlike most major energy companies, research has always been an integrated feature at EDF," said the R&D communications director. "EDF researchers and engineers work in all fields that could influence electricity consumption, from energy storage using batteries to thermal building insulation." And the results are often surprising: "The induction hot plates found in kitchens were developed at EDF's Renardières site," Bernard Salha, recalled EDF's R&D Director. Research is shifting up a gear However, developing the technologies of the future doesn't happen by working alone; in addition to the many partnerships signed with prestigious research institutes around the world (MIT and Columbia in the United States, for example), hospitals, local authorities, and major players with a presence at the Saclay hub (Inria, CEA, CNRS, Polytechnique, etc.), EDF is increasingly open to start-ups through measures such as its open innovation drive. EDF's presence at the heart of one of the biggest high-tech clusters in the world will help to further strengthen and boost exchanges between all of these industrial and academic partners. Plus; the fruit of their collaboration is already on display in the showroom. No fantasy gadgets or futuristic technology here. "Although some might still need further development and adaptations, all the innovations displayed in the showroom already exist," highlighted François Molho. In addition, the three areas that make up the venue match the main strategic orientations of the Group's R&D teams: providing customers with new services, preparing the electrical systems of tomorrow, and developing electricity generation that is both low-carbon and competitive. No more crossed wires To help visitors understand the challenges, the showroom is both fun and educational. For example, to find out what type of light bulb is used to light up the three scenes inhabited by figurines, visitors simply wave a tablet in front of each of them. The answers appear instantly. This little experiment illustrates the potential of Li-Fi (Light Fidelity) technology, which will soon allow information to be sent through light. Li-Fi could eventually be used wherever Wi-Fi causes issues, such as on transport, in hospitals, and in banks and sensitive research centres and industries. Further on, visitors can test out the contact-based mobile phone recharging sheet Energy Square – currently at the POC stage on the EDF Pulse & You site – then watch a small electric car drive on a track. But what makes it unique is the fact that it is charged via induction using the 'trickle charging' technique (frequent and ultra-fast charging for small batteries). "The weight and space savings made possible by combining these two technologies allows us to design new services," said François Molho. "It will also be possible to manage a fleet of vehicles based on their load." The EDF researchers' wide range of expertise can also be seen in the second area, which focuses on electrical systems. Whereas the acceptability of the results remains a major challenge (an issue being studied by social science researchers in collaboration with the R&D division), virtual reality means that people living within sight of an offshore wind farm can view the impact on the landscape via their tablet. Virtual reality, a powerful technology The same principle is used on an even more ambitious scale to help maintain power plants. An EDF team (which is competing in the internal EDF Pulse Awards) has developed a virtual visit app that allows technicians to easily prepare for the work they need to carry out. The tiniest valve can be identified remotely. Navigating via the interface, technicians are able not only to locate the best access route but also choose the appropriate equipment based on the environment (valve height measurements and analysis of objects on route can be used to choose the appropriate scaffolding, for example). Thanks to laser scan technology, the data is highly accurate, and coupled with spherical images, the process is as reliable as it is practical. Sketches and annotations can be made directly on the image, which can then be easily shared with all relevant stakeholders. To achieve this result, a monumental effort was required; several weeks of digitalisation work throughout the entire plant, followed by a year of processing and preparing data. Finally, another section of the showroom focuses on research into medicine and disability. But we've already said enough, so if you want to find out more, come to Saclay! To go furtherSaclay campus: a “landscape” building A brief history of innovation at EDF

Planet Progress: an energy-saving water heater and a smart sprinkler system

Take Stimergy, for example – an eco-friendly water heater. A candidate in the EDF Pulse Awards, this solution is based on a simple observation: the data centres that store our digital data require huge amounts of electricity to be generated. So why not use the heat produced to heat up water for buildings? And Tapia is also taking us into a new era. This robotic companion doesn't just tell you the time or make a coffee. Users can talk with it and, for example, ask it to buy products directly from the Internet. Also in this episode, discover Navya, the driverless electric shuttle that has been nominated for the EDF Pulse Awards; Zilker, a smart system that allows users to control their garden sprinklers using a smartphone; and many more! In this episode of Planet progress: Stimergy: using computers to heat water Navya Arma, self-driving transport

Marine turbines: currents off Paimpol-Bréhat to bring power to our homes

The expert: Rémi Courtial, a graduate of École Nationale Supérieure de Géologie and Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, Rémi Courtial worked at Total and then Engie before joining EDF to manage the maintenance and development of hydro-electric facilities. Today, he is the project director for the Paimpol-Bréhat tidal current farm. © EDF/ Jean-Baptiste BALDI What is the purpose of the Paimpol-Bréhat tidal current farm? It is a demonstrator. It has to prove the technical and industrial feasibility of this type of facility, which we will then be able to roll out on other sites to generate electricity commercially. EDF, in partnership with DCNS (a French group that specialises in naval shipbuilding, nuclear energy and marine infrastructure - Ed.), first designed and tested a prototype and then built the two marine turbines that we are in the process of installing in Paimpol-Bréhat. The first turbine was submerged on 20 January. It was connected last month and it is now being tested. The second turbine is currently on its installation barge in Brest, following the undertaking of initial tests in which we simulated how the turbine will function by towing it behind a tug. The site has not yet generated any electricity. Commissioning is planned to take place this summer. Further reading: River turbines: a new source of electricity Paimpol-Bréhat tidal current farm was created by EDF off the coast of Ile de Bréhat. The two marine turbines are connected to the onshore power grid through a converter and a 16-km underwater cable. © EDF To how many homes will these two turbines be able to supply electricity? Each marine turbine provides 500 kW of power and can generate 500 MWh per year. Excluding heating, the Paimpol-Bréhat tidal current farm will be able to supply power to around 1,500 homes per year. These calculations take into consideration the electric losses incurred when the facilities are in operation, due in particular to power electronics and the converter, which was originally designed for four marine turbines. Each marine turbine is 16 metres wide and weighs 1,100 tonnes. How do the turbines affect the environment? We have, of course, worked a lot on the acceptability and environmental impact of this project. Our two marine turbines sit on a metallic tripod on the seabed under their own weight. I would like to stress that no civil engineering work was necessary to anchor them to the seabed. Furthermore, we studied the potential impact of heat release and found that there was no such impact. The wake effect - that is, the deceleration of the current as it passes through the turbine - disappears after a few hundred metres. As for the noise, our facilities' noise level is similar to that of the engine of a small fishing or pleasure boat and it does not disturb the fish. The 16 km cable that brings the electricity to the shore is stabilised by concrete mats that were quickly colonised by lobsters and other marine animals. We shall continue to assess the environmental impact but we can already say that it is low. I would also like to highlight the warmth with which the Paimpol-Bréhat community welcomed our project. Nowadays, such consensus is rare. Does EDF have any other tidal energy projects? In 10 or 20 years from now, what could the share of tidal energy in France's energy mix be? Within the next few years, we plan to install a tidal current farm made up of seven 2 MW marine turbines at Raz Blanchard, off the western tip of the Cotentin Peninsula. For EDF, tidal energy is one sector among other renewable energy sectors. Its share in the energy mix will mainly depend on the MWh cost that we will be able to identify thanks to the Paimpol-Bréhat demonstrator and the Raz Blanchard pilot farm. This information as well as the situation of the energy market and the support received from the state will dictate the development of tidal energy in France. The Paimpol-Bréhat tidal current farm The Paimpol-Bréhat tidal current farm comprises two 500 kW turbines that sit on the seabed at a depth of 35 metres, 16 km off the coast of Ile de Bréhat (Côtes-d'Armor). Each marine turbine measures 16 metres in diameter and has a rotor 12 metres in diameter. The turbine and its tripod weigh, in total, 1,100 tonnes. The turbines are connected to a submerged converter that is three metres in diameter and eight metres in length. It contains a non-toxic, biodegradable refrigerant. The converter rectifies the current generated by the turbines to increase the current's voltage to 10 kV for transmission of the current through the underwater cable to the supply terminal installed in the car park of Anse de Launay (parish of Ploubazlanec). © Nicolas JOB et Yoann COUTAULT On the same topic Islands to switch to renewable energy Hybrid trucks featuring jet turbines In partnership with